nishant kashyap

keep calm and love technology

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Things you should know as a web user


Recently, one of my relative has been victimized by an unknown person by the means of some cyber crime techniques . Now a days , The Number of  web users are increased so crime related to web technologies ,also increase. Because of unawareness of cyber crimes , innocent people are victimized .  Here, i am trying to aware about some crimes sothat you can save your data, personal information, money etc.

The techniques are:

1. Social engineering

2. Phishing page

3.  Key logger

4. viruses, web worms , malwares .

5. cookies


1. Social Engineering:-

People are tricked into performing actions they would not otherwise want to perform. that is, By some social medium , somebody try to force you do to some wrong action so that hacker can get access to your computer, account or anything.  there are a lot of methods for this some are

fake codec:– During your browsing , suddenly some message come(prompt) and message may be say that you need to download that file for some purpose but actually that file may be a virus, trojan or any other malicious code which let hacker to connect your computer with hacker’s computer.  So do not download any unknown file which you do not know.

malicious peer to peer files: –  there are some sides which support peer to peer file sharing system like utorrent, Bittorrent , pando etc. sides which let you download the files which are shared by someone else like you . so it is more chance to add viruses , trojans with there movies files, songs files , software files etc. and when we download that file that malicious code can be installed in your system.

malicious updates:  some time , during browsing , some updates may be come like operating system updates , browser updates or ay scanner for scanning your pc for virus . these all can be a trap for you. actually this type of updates may be some malicious code which can infect your PC as well.

fake calls:– Somebody can call you as an employee of any bank, organization or any hospital etc. he may ask your personal details .

fake person:- some time , for a short time like journey in trains, buses, any seminar , you can make friends . after  one or two hours somebody can ask you about your mobile number, facebook id etc. If someone knows about your personal details like your parents name , number of brother sisters , date of birth etc. then he can go to your side and click on password forgot button . Then Computer will ask about the personal question which you wrote at that time when you created  your account. If that question you gave same which that hacker knows , he can access your account. so be sure when you meet any stranger , do not reveal all the information .

2. Phishing page :-

Phishing is the act of attempting to acquire sensitive information such as usernames, passwords, and credit card details (and sometimes, indirectly, money) by masquerading as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication. that is, a webpage which is looking like a standard any perticular website but it is not actual web page ,it is made for getting whatever you will write in that webpage.

Example: suppose you are  browsing facebook page . you find that page by searching on google. may be that facebook page is fake. when you write your user id and password it will go to the hacker’s computer.

3 key logger:- Keystroke logging, often referred to as keylogging or keyboard capturing, is the action of recording (or logging) the keys struck on a keyboard, typically in a covert manner so that the person using the keyboard is unaware that their actions are being monitored.

Whenever you use other’s computer , be sure that this computer does not have key logger . otherwise whatever you will press on keyboard everything will save on a file and after that that person who installed that keylogger can read what you typed on that computer.  there is also a keylogger plug-in by mozila firefox so just see all the plug-in  in your browser whether any keylogger is installed or not.

4. virus, malware, web worms :

Do not open untrusted sites, malicious sites or other those sites which are banned and Do not download and install any file from untrusted sources.

5.  cookies:Cookies are usually small text files, given ID tags that are stored on your computer’s browser directory or program data subfolders. Cookies are created when you use your browser to visit a website that uses cookies to keep track of your movements within the site, help you resume where you left off, remember your registered login, theme selection, preferences, and other customization functions. So always clear your cookies , if someone can access your cookies he or she can find a lot of information about you.

How you can save your self:

1. your awareness

2. digital certificates

3. https

4. anti-virus

5. turn-off java-script

1.  Awareness :- If somebody ask you about your personal information , you should firstly think that how can you trust him . do not say any information to strangers . Do not say your password of bank account , facebook account or any type of account , if someone ask you about your password then you can be 100% confirm that he is a fraud.

2. Digital certificates :-

Now a days, every good website has digital certificates . Digital certificates means there are certain organization which give certificates to only secure sites so that people can trust on these type of sites.

digital certifciate

3. https:

https protocol using sites always be trusted so just remember that if you are going to transfer any money see the protocol name on the address bar.


4. anti-virus:

You should always have a good anti-virus and you should also update that anti- virus frequently . without updating of your antivirous can fight with only those viruses which were in the past . By updating your anti-virus , you make it strong and able to fight with latest viruses .

5. turn off javaScript :-

In normal browser always turn off your javaScript . because maximum viruses are written in javascript on web .

If you are victim of any cyber crime then you need to write F.R.I. in your local police station and you can also contact with cyber cell .

this is the link where you can find all details regarding cyber cell:




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Role of money in higher studies


Everyone knows , Importance of money in our day to day life. We can see how our works stop due to lack of money. When we talk about our higher education , we need a huge amount of money for paying the fee. As we know that most of technical and management degree’s fee is too high.  So there are certain amount of student who want to do technical or management degree but due to the financial problem , they have to go in science field even they do not have that much interest in the science faculty .  When we seek the solution of this problem , we can say that , there are several banks which provide education loan, or even we can say that there are several scholarships or funds which are provided by govt. .  But problem is still there with some particular type of people who do not have anything for bank and who do not have such type of criteria by which they can get the scholarships or funds . So , I think , We cannot do any thing with those who do not have anything for bank but we can do something for them who are not under the criteria but they are poor .

In India , The scholarship is provided only for a particular community . The scholarship provides on the basis of community, not on the basis of poverty . and As we know that many communities which are not consider for scholarship or fund but there are many people who are under poverty line . So government should also provide some help these type of people.  Diversity1

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Right for vote


In India , The vista is totally different now a days because Parliamentary Lok Sabha election is going on. Every politicians are busy with their party advertisement.  But what’s about a normal people . Are you ready to cast your vote ?  May be somebody will say yes . But If we are talking about youngsters , It is not true.  A lot of youngsters  are not present in their native places. They are outside  because of  either for study or  jobs. So these people also have right to cast their vote with no problem. Yes, There is already some laws or rules , but Who wants to do that much stuff for giving their vote.

There should be a better and easy way to cast our vote from anywhere in India . even , not only in India but also from abroad . The age for giving vote is 18th in India. Approximately above 70% Students passed 12th in this age. Then after completing 12th standard, usually ,Students have to go outside from their native place  for their degree or may be for preparing any competition exams.

We all always  talking about technology , technology which can change the scenarios , technology which allows us to change the future. Our Indian government also always prefer a good topic for attracting youngsters . But why Indian government is not trying to use technology in the field of election .

So ,Indian government should try for providing voting facility in anywhere in India at least.

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somebody says true that  ” we do not realize the value of things that we got too easy. ”  everyone has friends . If anybody says to you that categorize your friends then how you will categorize your friends. most of people will categorize their friends as best friends and only friends  or may be someone categorizes his/her friends as boy friends and girlfriends .

firstly , i want to say how a person is made your friend and why some people become your best friends or some not. I think the person who has same thinking as you have, will become your best friend . I can also say that a person who listens  you , will become your best friend. so try to listen other’s voice , other’s thoughts , definitely they will become your best friends. I have rare friends , but i have that rare friends with 100% dedicated friendship. I am also true friend for them .

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Scope in mathematics

math symbols

When I passed Bachelor of science in mathematics . I have searched  for relevant masters courses in the field of mathematics . So , Now I want to share some knowledge regarding in this field.

Normally , people think that there is no jobs, no career in this field in India.

but I want to say people are wrong , we can get  job better than other fields. Here , I am sharing some subfields by which we can get jobs in the field of mathematics:

1. probability and statics

2. computational science

3.  applied mathematics

4. cryptography and information security

5. Operational Research……………. etc.

There are certain colleges which provide specialization  in these subfields of mathematics :

1. Indian Institute of Statics kolkata  :- you can do Bachelor of maths or statics , master of maths or statics , MS in various branches etc.

2.  Indian Institute of Technology and Management , kerala :- Here , you can do Master of Science in Information Security (related to cryptography), Master of Science in Computational Science etc.

3.  Institute of Mathematical Science , Chennai :-  Here, you can do Masters in Theoretical Computer Science, Masters in Mathematics etc.

4.Indian Institute of Technology , Bombay and Delhi University :- These Both colleges provide Masters in Operational Research .

5. You can also applied for NET, UPSC , and other competitive exams after masters.

6. you can also apply for GATE entrance exam after masters.

These colleges are india’s best colleges because of there unique courses and study  in these colleges means a good career and good job.

So, you can choose your area of interest in the field of mathematics .


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software metrics

  Basic definition

What is :-

software metric is a measure of some property of a piece of software or its specifications.

what is Measurement :-

Measurement is the process  of assigning some numbers and symbols  on some entities by some clearly defined rules.

difference between Measurement and Metrics :-

Measure – numerical value assign to an entity and act of determining the measure is called measurement.

Metric :- Mathematical set of relevant values (quantifiable) over a time.

example: represent the measurement in the form of table , chart etc.

Indicator :- An indicator is a metric or combination of metrics that provide clear understanding of a software product.


“collection of measures is called metric , collection of metrics is called indicator and a software engineer collects all these things .”


principles for metrics characterization and validation:-

1. A metric should have desirable mathematical properties. = metric value should be in meaningful range (0 to 1)

2.  positive traits occur = metrics increase which represents software characteristics.

undesirable traits = metrics decrease which represents software characteristics.

3. Each metric should be validated  before being published.


Attributes of effective software metrics:-

1. simple and computable .

2. prgramming language independent

3. an effective mechanism for high quality feedback.

4. consistent and objective



Metric for requirement Model

1. function based metrics  (function point metrics use)

2. metrics for specification quality

1. function based metrics:-

function point (fp) metric is used  for measuring the functionality delivered by a system . it depends on

a. number of external inputs (ei)

b. number of external outputs (eo)

c. number of external inquiries (eq)

d. number of internal logical files (ilf)

e. number of external interface file (eif)


2. metrics for specification quality :

The characteristics that can be used to assess the quality of the requirements model and the corresponding requirements specification :

a. completeness

b. correctness

c. understand ability

d. venerability

e. internal and external consistency

f. achievability

g. concision

h. tractability

i. modifiable

j. precision

k. reusability


metrics for the design model


1. class oriented metrics ( CK metrics suit and MOOD metrics suit)

2.  OO Metrics

3. component level design metrics

4. operation oriented metrics

5. user interface design metrics

6. design metrics for WebApps


1.1 CK metrics suit:-

proposed by chidamber and kemerer .

attributes are :

weighted methods per class

depth of inheritance tree

number of children

coupling between object classes

response for a class

lack of cohesion in method



metrics for testing

1. halstead metrics applied to testing

2. metrics for object oriented testing.

1. Halstead metrics applied to testing:-



2. metrics for object oriented testing:-

metrics consider aspects of encapsulation and inheritance

a. lack of cohesion in methods(LCOM) =method should not generate side effect.

b. percent public and protection (PAP)= percent of class attributes that are public or protected.

c. public access to data members( PAD)= this metrics indicate the number of classes or methods that can access other’s attributes.

d. number of root class(NOR) =  Number of distinct classes.

e. fan-in (FIN) :- indication of multiple inheritance.

f. Number of children and depth of the inheritance tree.


metrics for maintenance

Software Maturity Index (SMI) is used to provides an indication of the stability of a software product.

The following information is determined for metrics :

Mt= number of modules in the current release

Fc= number of modules in the current release that have been changed.

Fa= number of modules in the current release that have been added.

Fd= number of modules from the preceding release that were deleted in the current release.