nishant kashyap

keep calm and love technology

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Scope in mathematics

math symbols

When I passed Bachelor of science in mathematics . I have searched  for relevant masters courses in the field of mathematics . So , Now I want to share some knowledge regarding in this field.

Normally , people think that there is no jobs, no career in this field in India.

but I want to say people are wrong , we can get  job better than other fields. Here , I am sharing some subfields by which we can get jobs in the field of mathematics:

1. probability and statics

2. computational science

3.  applied mathematics

4. cryptography and information security

5. Operational Research……………. etc.

There are certain colleges which provide specialization  in these subfields of mathematics :

1. Indian Institute of Statics kolkata  :- you can do Bachelor of maths or statics , master of maths or statics , MS in various branches etc.

2.  Indian Institute of Technology and Management , kerala :- Here , you can do Master of Science in Information Security (related to cryptography), Master of Science in Computational Science etc.

3.  Institute of Mathematical Science , Chennai :-  Here, you can do Masters in Theoretical Computer Science, Masters in Mathematics etc.

4.Indian Institute of Technology , Bombay and Delhi University :- These Both colleges provide Masters in Operational Research .

5. You can also applied for NET, UPSC , and other competitive exams after masters.

6. you can also apply for GATE entrance exam after masters.

These colleges are india’s best colleges because of there unique courses and study  in these colleges means a good career and good job.

So, you can choose your area of interest in the field of mathematics .


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software metrics

  Basic definition

What is :-

software metric is a measure of some property of a piece of software or its specifications.

what is Measurement :-

Measurement is the process  of assigning some numbers and symbols  on some entities by some clearly defined rules.

difference between Measurement and Metrics :-

Measure – numerical value assign to an entity and act of determining the measure is called measurement.

Metric :- Mathematical set of relevant values (quantifiable) over a time.

example: represent the measurement in the form of table , chart etc.

Indicator :- An indicator is a metric or combination of metrics that provide clear understanding of a software product.


“collection of measures is called metric , collection of metrics is called indicator and a software engineer collects all these things .”


principles for metrics characterization and validation:-

1. A metric should have desirable mathematical properties. = metric value should be in meaningful range (0 to 1)

2.  positive traits occur = metrics increase which represents software characteristics.

undesirable traits = metrics decrease which represents software characteristics.

3. Each metric should be validated  before being published.


Attributes of effective software metrics:-

1. simple and computable .

2. prgramming language independent

3. an effective mechanism for high quality feedback.

4. consistent and objective



Metric for requirement Model

1. function based metrics  (function point metrics use)

2. metrics for specification quality

1. function based metrics:-

function point (fp) metric is used  for measuring the functionality delivered by a system . it depends on

a. number of external inputs (ei)

b. number of external outputs (eo)

c. number of external inquiries (eq)

d. number of internal logical files (ilf)

e. number of external interface file (eif)


2. metrics for specification quality :

The characteristics that can be used to assess the quality of the requirements model and the corresponding requirements specification :

a. completeness

b. correctness

c. understand ability

d. venerability

e. internal and external consistency

f. achievability

g. concision

h. tractability

i. modifiable

j. precision

k. reusability


metrics for the design model


1. class oriented metrics ( CK metrics suit and MOOD metrics suit)

2.  OO Metrics

3. component level design metrics

4. operation oriented metrics

5. user interface design metrics

6. design metrics for WebApps


1.1 CK metrics suit:-

proposed by chidamber and kemerer .

attributes are :

weighted methods per class

depth of inheritance tree

number of children

coupling between object classes

response for a class

lack of cohesion in method



metrics for testing

1. halstead metrics applied to testing

2. metrics for object oriented testing.

1. Halstead metrics applied to testing:-



2. metrics for object oriented testing:-

metrics consider aspects of encapsulation and inheritance

a. lack of cohesion in methods(LCOM) =method should not generate side effect.

b. percent public and protection (PAP)= percent of class attributes that are public or protected.

c. public access to data members( PAD)= this metrics indicate the number of classes or methods that can access other’s attributes.

d. number of root class(NOR) =  Number of distinct classes.

e. fan-in (FIN) :- indication of multiple inheritance.

f. Number of children and depth of the inheritance tree.


metrics for maintenance

Software Maturity Index (SMI) is used to provides an indication of the stability of a software product.

The following information is determined for metrics :

Mt= number of modules in the current release

Fc= number of modules in the current release that have been changed.

Fa= number of modules in the current release that have been added.

Fd= number of modules from the preceding release that were deleted in the current release.


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application layer in Networking

Application layer is the upper most layer in OSI and TCP model. It is the layer which is responsible for giving interface between two nodes for an application. there are a lot of protocols which are categorized into application layer.

protocols are:

1. DNS



4. POP



In DNS ie. domain name system/service/server , As we know that every server has its own ip address . but it is too difficult to remember the ip address of every server . so for solution of this problem , DNS was introduced. with that computer can communicate by the URL OR URI of server.

in HTTP, whatever we are communicate by client (browser) and server or peer to peer , all are because of HTTP.